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The interest rate that the borrowing bank pays to the lending bank to borrow the funds is negotiated between the two banks, and the weighted average of this rate across all such transactions is the effective federal funds rate.

The nominal rate is a target set by the governors of the Federal Reserve, which they enforce primarily by open market operations. When the media refer to the Federal Reserve "changing interest rates," this nominal rate is almost always meant.The actual Fed funds rate generally lies within a range of the target rate, as the Federal Reserve cannot set an exact value through open market operations.

Another way banks can borrow funds to keep up their required reserves is by taking a loan from the Federal Reserve itself at the discount window. These loans are subject to audit by the Fed, and the discount rate is usually higher than the federal funds rate. Confusion between these two kinds of loans often leads to confusion between the federal funds rate and the discount rate.

Another difference is that while the Fed cannot set an exact federal funds rate, it can set a specific discount rate.

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The technical name for this is "referer spoofing" (with the misspelling). Spoofing is an easy thing to pull off in Firefox — all you've got to do is download this add-on, refspoof.

When you've installed that app, you'll see a new toolbar in Firefox that looks like this:

Spoof bar

Now follow these steps:

* Go to
* In the refspoof toolbar's "spoof:" field, type ""
* Also in the refspoof toolbar, click the R icon, and select "static referrer."
* That's it. Click around the site; the WSJ thinks each click is coming from Digg. The WSJ is now yours for free!

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